Wednesday, 21 January 2009

Samuel de Champlain - Part 1

[1-Samuel de Champlain by Ronjat]

Samuel de Champlain (c. 1575 - 25 December 1635), known as "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, geographer, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, ethnologist, diplomat, chronicler, and the founder of Quebec City on July 3, 1608, of which he was the administrator for the rest of his life. It is from Champlain’s published accounts of his voyages that established him as an explorer and geographer.

Champlain arrived on board the Bonne-Renommée (the Good Fame) on his first trip to North America on 15 March 1603, as an observer, with members of a fur-trading expedition. Although he had no official assignment on the voyage commanded by François Gravé Du Pont, he created a map of the St. Lawrence River and after his return to France on September 20th, wrote an account published as Des Sauvages: ou voyage de Samuel Champlain, de Brouages, faite en la France nouvelle l'an 1603 ("Concerning the Savages: or travels of Samuel Champlain, of Brouages, made in New France the year 1603").

[2-King Henri IV of France]

When asked by King Henri IV to make a report on his further discoveries, Champlain joined a second expedition to New France in the spring of 1604 led by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts, a Protestant merchant given fur trade monopoly in new France. They chose as their base the tiny Ile Ste-Croix in the southwestern corner of modern-day New Brunswick. After a disastrous winter in what turned out to be a most inhospitable location, the remnants of the community migrated to a more congenial site across the Baie Française (Bay of Fundy), settling in a location they named Port Royal. Champlain remained at the site until 1607, while he explored the Atlantic coast.

[3- Port Royal Habitation]

[4- Port Royal Habitation courtyard]

The Port-Royal Habitation was constructed during the summer of 1605; consisting of several buildings grouped, French-fashion, in a four-sided arrangement around a central courtyard. Although this new community did not last long, it was the earliest European settlement of any permanence in North America, north of Florida, and it introduced a way of life that was both innovative and unique for its time and place.

[5-Port Royal Habitation]

[6- Port Royal Habitation Kitchen]

The Port Royal Habitation is the reconstruction of early 17th century buildings representing the former colony of the French who settled for a time on the Nova Scotia coast.

[7 - Port Royal Habitation- Sieur de Champlain quarters]

[8-Chatham, Cape Cod present]

In 1605 and 1606, Champlain explored the land that is now Chatham, Cape Cod, as a prospective settlement but small skirmishes with the resident Monomoyick Indians dissuaded him from the idea. He named the area Port Fortune.


Photo Credits: [1][2]-Wikipedia, [3]-Grant MacDonald CC=nc-flickr, [4]-paige_elize CC=nc-nd-flickr, [5]-mooncross CC=nc-sa-flickr, [6][7]-William George CC=nc-nd-flickr, [8]-Chris Seufert CC=nc-nd-flickr.

Sources: wikipedia;
Library and Archives Canada here;
The Illustrated History of Canada, edited by Craig Brown;
ParksCanada - Port-Royal National Historic Site of Canada


RuneE said...

Once again a day not wasted - I have learned something new.

Philip said...

No wonder you have so many awards for this blog great and informative congrats !! were on earth do you get photos of those old portraits from very cool!

BernardL said...

Very interesting post, Barbara.

Charles Gramlich said...

I love the interiors of these old places. Something...strong about them. They tell you those folks were survivors.

Raph G. Neckmann said...

Really interesting Barbara! I love the photos of the interiors.

The portrait of Henri IV is wonderful - his eyes have a laid-back humorous lilt in them.

Barbara Martin said...

RuneE, Canada's early visitors from France and England became the founders.

Philip, I write posts about topics I have a deep interest in. All photos have accreditation at the bottom of each post. The historic portraits come from Wikipedia where copyright has expired.

Bernard, thank you. I am uncovering the background that had bearing on the War of 1812.

Barbara Martin said...

Charles, yes, mankind has an inherent ability to survive. In the early 17th century it would be a daunting task to sail across an ocean to explore a wilderness while building a settlement.

Even today humans will pull together in times of need.

Gary's third pottery blog said...

I wonder if he had anything to do with Lake Champlain? ;^)
There is a monster in Lake Champlain, you know.....CHAMPY!

Tess Kincaid said...

I'm always fascinated by the interiors of those old kitchens. I can't imagine trying to cook on an open fire every day. But I do love the wonderful vintage utensils.

Barbara Martin said...

Raph, Henri IV was a progressive leader by tolerating Protestant worship and allowed the Hugenots to keep their churches. His history is particularly interesting.

Lauren said...

Sounds like a really neat place to visit. That is great how they have the reconstruction. I look forward to reading more about this.

Barbara Martin said...

Gary, he did indeed. Next week's post will cover that particular trip.

I had heard of the monster, but then the lake is quite deep and there may be some sort of opening down below we know nothing about. (Like the hot water vent discovered under the northern polar crust.)

Barbara Martin said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Barbara Martin said...

Willow, the period also produced metal boxes to place into the coals to bake bread.

Cloudia said...

How fascinating. what amazing times that no doubt continue to feed the Canadian character. My hat's off to those early explorers and settlers. Aloha-

Joshua said...

holy crap, a history lesson i liked. thanks B!

Barbara Martin said...

Cloudia, those early days of the French and British explorers left their mark which will be revealed post by post.

Josh, words any teacher would love to hear, I'm sure. I like my history doled out in brief excerpts with lots of photos.